Lost Posture: Why Some Indigenous Cultures May Not Have Back Pain

Lost Posture: Why Some Indigenous Cultures May Not Have Back Pain

Primal posture: Ubong tribesmen in Borneo (right) display the perfect J-shaped spines. A woman in Burkina Faso (left) holds her baby so that his spine stays straight. The center image shows the S-shaped spine drawn in a modern anatomy book (Fig. I) and the J-shaped spine (Fig. II) drawn in the 1897 anatomy book Traite d’Anatomie Humaine.

 

Editor’s note, June 10: We have added an acknowledgement of several sources that Esther Gokhale used while developing her theories on back pain. These include physiotherapy methods, such as the Alexander Technique and the Feldenkrais Method, and the work of anthropologist Noelle Perez-Christiaens.

 

Back pain is a tricky beast. Most Americans will at some point have a problem with their backs. And for an unlucky third, treatments won’t work, and the problem will become chronic.

Many ancient statues, such as this one from Greece, display a J-shaped spine. The statue's back is nearly flat until the bottom, where it curves so the buttocks are behind the spine.

Many ancient statues, such as this one from Greece, display a J-shaped spine. The statue’s back is nearly flat until the bottom, where it curves so the buttocks are behind the spine.

 

Believe it or not, there are a few cultures in the world where back pain hardly exists. One indigenous tribe in central India reported essentially none. And the discs in their backs showed little signs of degeneration as people aged.

 

An acupuncturist in Palo Alto, Calif., thinks she has figured out why. She has traveled around the world studying cultures with low rates of back pain — how they stand, sit and walk. Now she’s sharing their secrets with back pain sufferers across the U.S.

 

About two decades ago, Esther Gokhale started to struggle with her own back after she had her first child. “I had excruciating pain. I couldn’t sleep at night,” she says. “I was walking around the block every two hours. I was just crippled.” Gokhale had a herniated disc. Eventually she had surgery to fix it. But a year later, it happened again. “They wanted to do another back surgery. You don’t want to make a habit out of back surgery,” she says.

 

This time around, Gokhale wanted to find a permanent fix for her back. And she wasn’t convinced Western medicine could do that. So Gokhale started to think outside the box. She had an idea: “Go to populations where they don’t have these huge problems and see what they’re doing.”

 

Over the next decade, Gokhale went to cultures around the world that live far away from modern life. She went to the mountains in Ecuador, tiny fishing towns in Portugal and remote villages of West Africa. “I went to villages where every kid under age 4 was crying because they were frightened to see somebody  with white skin — they’d never seen a white person before,” she says.

 

Gokhale took photos and videos of people who walked with water buckets on their heads, collected firewood or sat on the ground weaving, for hours.

 

“I have a picture in my book of these two women who spend seven to nine hours every day, bent over, gathering water chestnuts”, Gokhale says. “They’re quite old. But the truth is they don’t have back pain.”

 

She tried to figure out what all these different people had in common. The first thing that popped out was the shape of their spines. “They have this regal posture, and it’s very compelling.”

 

And it’s quite different than American spines. If you look at an American’s spine from the side, or profile, it’s shaped like the letter S. It curves at the top and then back again at the bottom. But Gokhale didn’t see those two big curves in people who don’t have back pain. “That S shape is actually not natural,” she says. “It’s a J-shaped spine that you want.”

 

In fact, if you look at drawings from Leonardo da Vinci — or a Gray’s Anatomy book from 1901 — the spine isn’t shaped like a sharp, curvy S. It’s much flatter, all the way down the back. Then at the bottom, it curves to stick the buttocks out. So the spine looks more like the letter J.

 

“The J-shaped spine is what you see in Greek statues. It’s what you see in young children. It’s good design,”
Gokhale says. So Gokhale worked to get her spine into the J shape. And gradually her back pain went away.Then Gokhale realized she could help others. She developed a set of exercises, wrote a book and set up a studio in downtown Palo Alto. Now her list of clients is impressive. She’s helped YouTube CEO Susan Wojcicki and Matt Drudge of the Drudge Report. She has given classes at Google, Facebook and companies across the country. In Silicon Valley, she’s known as the “posture guru.”

 

But there’s still a big question looming here: Is Gokhale right? Have people in Western cultures somehow forgotten the right way to stand?

 

Scientists don’t know yet, says Dr. Praveen Mummaneni, a neurosurgeon at the University of California, San Francisco’s Spine Center. Nobody has done a study on traditional cultures to see why some have lower rates of back pain, he says. Nobody has even documented the shape of their spines.

 

“I’d like to go and take X-rays of indigenous populations and compare it to people in the Western world,” Mummaneni says. “I think that would be helpful.”

 

But there’s a whole bunch of reasons why Americans’ postures — and the shape of their spines — may be different than those of indigenous populations, he says. For starters, Americans tend to be much heavier.

 

“If you have a lot of fat built up in the belly, that could pull your weight forward,” Mummaneni says. “That
could curve the spine. And people who are thinner probably have less curvature” — and thus a spine shaped more like J than than an S.

 

Americans are also much less active than people in traditional cultures, Mummaneni says. “I think the sedentary lifestyle promotes a lack of muscle tone and a lack of postural stability because the muscles get weak.”

 

Everyone knows that weak abdominal muscles can cause back pain. In fact, Mummaneni says, stronger
muscles might be the secret to Gokhale’s success.

 

In other words, it’s not that the J-shaped spine is the ideal one — or the healthiest. It’s what goes into making the J-shaped spine that matters: “You have to use muscle strength to get your spine to look like a J shape,” he says.

 

So Gokhale has somehow figured out a way to teach people to build up their core muscles without them even knowing it. “Yes, I think that’s correct,” Mummaneni says. “You’re not going to be able to go from the S- to the J-shaped spine without having good core muscle strength. And I think that’s key here.”

 

So indigenous people around the world don’t have a magic bullet for stopping back pain. They’ve just got beefy abdominal muscles, and their lifestyle helps to keep them that way, even as they age.

 

Esther Gokhale’s Five Tips For Better Posture And Less Back Pain

 

Try these exercises while you’re working at your desk, sitting at the dinner table or walking around.

 

Esther Gokhale recommends:

 

1. Do a shoulder roll: Americans tend to scrunch their shoulders forward, so our arms are in front of our bodies. That’s not how people in indigenous cultures carry their arms, Gokhale says. To fix that, gently pull your shoulders up, push them back and then let them drop — like a shoulder roll. Now your arms should dangle by your side, with your thumbs pointing out. “This is the way all your ancestors parked their
shoulders,” she says. “This is the natural architecture for our species.”

 

2. Lengthen your spine: Adding extra length to your spine is easy, Gokhale says. Being careful not to arch your back, take a deep breath in and grow tall. Then maintain that height as you exhale. Repeat: Breathe in, grow even taller and maintain that new height as you exhale. “It takes some effort, but it really strengthens your abdominal muscles,” Gokhale says.

 

3. Squeeze, squeeze your glute muscles when you walk: In many indigenous cultures, people squeeze their gluteus medius muscles every time they take a step. That’s one reason they have such shapely buttocks muscles that support their lower backs. Gokhale says you can start developing the same type of derrière by tightening the buttocks muscles when you take each step. “The gluteus medius is the one you’re after here. It’s the one high up on your bum,” Gokhale says. “It’s the muscle that keeps you perky, at any age.”

 

4. Don’t put your chin up: Instead, add length to your neck by taking a lightweight object, like a bean bag or folded washcloth, and balance it on the top of your crown. Try to push your head against the object. “This will lengthen the back of your neck and allow your chin to angle down — not in an exaggerated way, but in a relaxed manner,” Gokhale says.

 

5. Don’t sit up straight! “That’s just arching your back and getting you into all sorts of trouble,” Gokhale
says. Instead do a shoulder roll to open up the chest and take a deep breath to stretch and lengthen the spine.

No comments

With thanks, Excellent stuff!
https://www.interlandchemie.com/
best online pharmacy
mexican pharmacies shipping to usa
mexican pharmacy online medications
canadian online pharmacies

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 9, 2019 at 6:56 pm

This is nicely expressed. !
https://www.visitwaushara.com/
canadian pharcharmy online
north west pharmacy canada
overseas pharmacies
canada pharmacy

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 9, 2019 at 9:02 pm

Cheers. An abundance of advice.

https://www.dunamisproductions.com/
canada pharmacies online
northwestpharmacy
online pharmacies canada
canada pharmaceutical online ordering

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 10, 2019 at 1:12 am

Nicely put. Thanks a lot!
https://www.waltcoexpress.com/
pharmacy prices compare
canada pharmaceutical online ordering
best price prescription drugs
canadian pharmacies-24h

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 10, 2019 at 3:19 am

You actually stated that exceptionally well.
https://www.lunarciel.com/
international pharmacy
canada pharmacy
prescription drug cost
london drugs canada

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 10, 2019 at 5:25 am

You actually said that superbly.
https://www.dunamisproductions.com/
canadapharmacy com
online pharmacies canada
price prescription drugs
canadian pharmacy online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 10, 2019 at 7:30 am

Really tons of superb advice.
https://www.dunamisproductions.com/
canadian drug
canada pharmacy online
drug prices comparison
northwest pharmacy

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 10, 2019 at 9:35 am

You made your position very well.!
https://www.dunamisproductions.com/
the canadian pharmacy
canada pharmaceuticals online
buying drugs canada
global pharmacy canada

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 10, 2019 at 11:42 am

Thanks, Useful stuff.
https://www.waltcoexpress.com/
the canadian pharmacy
canadian pharmacy
online canadian discount pharmacy
northwest pharmacy

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 10, 2019 at 1:51 pm

Thanks a lot! Loads of info.

https://www.visitwaushara.com/
online pharmacy reviews
online pharmacies of canada
top rated online canadian pharmacies
canadian pharmacies-24h

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 10, 2019 at 4:02 pm

You reported it fantastically.
https://www.dunamisproductions.com/
mexican pharmacy online medications
canadian pharmacy
pharmacies in canada
canada drugs online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 10, 2019 at 6:15 pm

Factor very well considered..
https://www.waltcoexpress.com/
canadian online pharmacy reviews
trust pharmacy canada
reputable canadian mail order pharmacies
mexican pharmacies shipping to usa

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 10, 2019 at 8:23 pm

Thanks a lot. Loads of facts.

https://www.waltcoexpress.com/
canada drugs pharmacy
canadian pharmacies-24h
safeway pharmacy
canada pharmaceuticals online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 10, 2019 at 10:31 pm

Regards! Terrific information!
https://www.waltcoexpress.com/
pain meds online without doctor prescription
north west pharmacy canada
online canadian pharmacies
canada online pharmacies

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 11, 2019 at 12:41 am

Fantastic postings. Many thanks.
https://www.dunamisproductions.com/
canadian prescription drugs
canadian pharmacies without an rx
discount prescription drug
canadian pharmaceuticals online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 11, 2019 at 2:53 am

Really quite a lot of good advice!
https://www.lunarciel.com/
rx pharmacy
canadian pharmacy online
rx pharmacy
canadian pharmacies online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 11, 2019 at 5:03 am

Thanks, Fantastic stuff!
https://www.interlandchemie.com/
canadian pharmacies without prescriptions
canadian pharmacy
pharmacy drug store
canada drugs

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 11, 2019 at 7:13 am

Incredible a lot of good info.
https://www.visitwaushara.com/
mexican pharmacies shipping to usa
canada pharmaceutical online ordering
canadian pharmacies without prescriptions
canadian pharmacies without an rx

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 11, 2019 at 9:23 am

You said it very well.!
https://www.visitwaushara.com/
onlinecanadianpharmacy.com
canadian pharmacy online
board of pharmacy
canadian pharmacies-24h

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 11, 2019 at 11:33 am

Fine forum posts. Regards.
https://www.lunarciel.com/
pharmacy price comparison
canadian online pharmacy
best online pharmacy
canadian cialis

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 11, 2019 at 1:46 pm

You said it effectively!
https://www.visitwaushara.com/
canadapharmacy
online pharmacies of canada
canada drug prices
northwest pharmacy

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 11, 2019 at 4:02 pm

With thanks, Awesome stuff.
https://www.visitwaushara.com/
meds online
north west pharmacy canada
cheap prescription drugs online
london drugs canada

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 11, 2019 at 6:13 pm

You made your point pretty effectively!.
https://www.dunamisproductions.com/
canadian pharmacies without prescriptions
canadian pharmaceuticals online
prescription prices comparison
canadian pharmacy

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 11, 2019 at 8:24 pm

Superb tips. Kudos!
https://www.waltcoexpress.com/
mail order pharmacies
canadian viagra
buying prescription drugs canada
canadian pharmaceuticals online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 11, 2019 at 10:34 pm

You actually stated that really well.
https://www.waltcoexpress.com/
pain meds online without doctor prescription
northwestpharmacy
safeway pharmacy
canada pharmacy online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 12, 2019 at 12:49 am

You suggested this wonderfully.
https://www.visitwaushara.com/
onlinecanadianpharmacy.com
online pharmacies canada
reputable canadian mail order pharmacies
canadian pharmacies that ship to us

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 12, 2019 at 3:01 am

Good material, Appreciate it!
https://www.waltcoexpress.com/
buy prescription drugs from canada
canadianpharmacy
online pharmacy no prescription needed
canadian pharmaceuticals online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 12, 2019 at 5:12 am

Thanks a lot, I like this!
https://www.dunamisproductions.com/
canadian pharmacies shipping to usa
canada drugs online
discount pharmacy
canadian pharmacy online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 12, 2019 at 7:23 am

Many thanks. I like this!
https://www.interlandchemie.com/
buying drugs canada
canadian pharmacy online
pharmacy without dr prescriptions
canadian pharmacies without an rx

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 12, 2019 at 9:32 am

Useful facts. Cheers.
https://www.lunarciel.com/
canadian drugs without prescription
global pharmacy canada
canadapharmacyonline com
canadian online pharmacies

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 12, 2019 at 11:38 am

You made your point very nicely!!
https://www.waltcoexpress.com/
canadian viagra
aarp approved canadian online pharmacies
prescription drug cost
canadian viagra

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 12, 2019 at 1:47 pm

You actually revealed it well!
https://www.lunarciel.com/
canadian drugs without prescription
global pharmacy canada
mail order pharmacies
northwest pharmacy

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 12, 2019 at 3:59 pm

Many thanks, Fantastic stuff.
https://www.interlandchemie.com/
best online pharmacy stores
canadian pharmaceuticals online
cialis online
canada pharmaceutical online ordering

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 12, 2019 at 6:08 pm

Nicely put, Appreciate it!
https://www.visitwaushara.com/
prescription online
canadianpharmacy
rx online
canada drug

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 12, 2019 at 8:14 pm

You have made your point.
https://www.lunarciel.com/
canada drug prices
global pharmacy canada
canadian pharmacies top best
canada drugs online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 12, 2019 at 10:16 pm

Kudos, Fantastic stuff.
https://www.visitwaushara.com/
pharmacy prescription
canada pharmacy
rx price comparison
canadian pharmacies-24h

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 13, 2019 at 12:20 am

Awesome data. Thanks a lot!
https://www.dunamisproductions.com/
canadian rx pharmacy online
canadian pharmacy
best canadian online pharmacy
northwest pharmacy

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 13, 2019 at 2:23 am

Nicely put, Thank you!
https://www.waltcoexpress.com/
online canadian pharmacies
canadian drugs
canadian mail order pharmacies
london drugs canada

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 13, 2019 at 4:32 am

With thanks, I enjoy it.
https://www.visitwaushara.com/
canadian pharmacy no prescription needed
canada pharmaceutical online ordering
canadian rx
northwestpharmacy

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 13, 2019 at 6:41 am

With thanks! Great stuff!
https://www.waltcoexpress.com/
canada pharmacies online
canada pharmaceutical online ordering
canadian prescriptions
canada pharmaceutical online ordering

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 13, 2019 at 8:49 am

Many thanks. Lots of advice.

https://www.waltcoexpress.com/
canada drugs online pharmacy
canadianpharmacy
the canadian pharmacy
online pharmacies of canada

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 13, 2019 at 10:57 am

Useful data. Kudos!
https://www.interlandchemie.com/
canadian online pharmacy reviews
canadian drugs
best online pharmacy
mexican pharmacies shipping to usa

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 13, 2019 at 1:05 pm

Very good postings, Kudos.
https://www.dunamisproductions.com/
legitimate canadian mail order pharmacies
canadian pharmacies online
online pharmacies no prescription
canada pharmaceutical online ordering

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 13, 2019 at 3:16 pm

Amazing write ups. Many thanks!
https://www.dunamisproductions.com/
online pharmacies canada
canadian pharmacies that ship to us
prescription drugs without prior prescription
canada drugs

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 13, 2019 at 5:26 pm

Very good tips. Thank you!
https://www.waltcoexpress.com/
online pharmacy reviews
canadian pharmacies that ship to us
northwest pharmacy
canadian online pharmacy

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 13, 2019 at 7:35 pm

Many thanks! Awesome information!
https://www.waltcoexpress.com/
mexican pharmacies
canada pharmacy
price prescription drugs
canada pharmaceuticals online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 13, 2019 at 9:44 pm

Very good forum posts. Kudos.
https://www.interlandchemie.com/
online drugstore
canadian pharmacies
online pharmacies canada
top rated canadian pharmacies online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 13, 2019 at 11:54 pm

Thanks a lot. An abundance of facts!

https://www.waltcoexpress.com/
get prescription online
canada drugs
cheap prescription drugs
online pharmacies canada

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 14, 2019 at 4:18 am

Thank you. I like this.
https://www.visitwaushara.com/
canadian mail order pharmacies
canadian pharmacy
trusted overseas pharmacies
mexican pharmacies shipping to usa

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 14, 2019 at 6:32 am

Thanks! I value this!
https://www.dunamisproductions.com/
best canadian prescription prices
london drugs canada
canadian meds
canadian pharmacies without an rx

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 14, 2019 at 8:47 am

Nicely put. Regards!
https://www.visitwaushara.com/
mexican pharmacies shipping to usa
aarp approved canadian online pharmacies
canadian cialis
global pharmacy canada

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 14, 2019 at 11:02 am

This is nicely said. !
https://www.waltcoexpress.com/
prescription price comparison
canadian pharmaceuticals online
online pharmacies
canadian pharmaceuticals online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 14, 2019 at 1:16 pm

Perfectly spoken truly! .
https://www.visitwaushara.com/
prescription drugs canada
trust pharmacy canada
international pharmacies that ship to the usa
canadian drugs

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 14, 2019 at 3:32 pm

Appreciate it, Lots of posts.

https://www.waltcoexpress.com/
canada pharmacy
canadian cialis
pharmacy cost comparison
canadian pharmacies

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 14, 2019 at 5:48 pm

Wonderful information. Many thanks!
https://www.visitwaushara.com/
prescription drugs without doctor approval
northwest pharmacy
safeway pharmacy
canada drugs online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 14, 2019 at 8:01 pm

Amazing material, Thanks a lot!
https://www.visitwaushara.com/
online drugs
london drugs canada
best non prescription online pharmacies
canadian pharmacies

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 14, 2019 at 10:15 pm

Amazing loads of great advice.
https://www.visitwaushara.com/
canada online pharmacy
canadian pharmacies online
online pharmacy without prescription
canadian pharmaceuticals online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 15, 2019 at 12:29 am

Very good stuff. Thank you!
https://www.visitwaushara.com/
canada pharmacy no prescription
canadian pharmaceuticals online
canadian rx pharmacy online
canadian online pharmacies

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 15, 2019 at 2:43 am

Thank you. I enjoy it.
https://www.lunarciel.com/
canada online pharmacies
canadian cialis
drugs without prescription
canadianpharmacy

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 15, 2019 at 5:00 am

You said that effectively.
https://www.lunarciel.com/
canadian pharmacy online
canadian pharmacies-24h
prescription cost
canadian online pharmacy

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 15, 2019 at 7:16 am

You actually stated this exceptionally well!
https://www.dunamisproductions.com/
canada pharmacies prescription drugs
canadian pharmacies-24h
canadian drugs
aarp approved canadian online pharmacies

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 15, 2019 at 9:33 am

Very good facts. Thanks a lot.
https://www.interlandchemie.com/
canadian prescriptions
canada drug
best canadian mail order pharmacies
canadian pharmacies-24h

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 15, 2019 at 11:47 am

Very good info. Thank you.
https://www.lunarciel.com/
get prescription online
canada drugs
discount pharmacy
canada drugs

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 15, 2019 at 2:04 pm

You expressed it superbly!
https://www.waltcoexpress.com/
no prescription pharmacy
canada online pharmacies
overseas pharmacies
canadianpharmacy

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 15, 2019 at 4:23 pm

Thanks! A lot of stuff.

http://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/
canadian mail order pharmacies
canadian viagra
drugs online
mexican pharmacies shipping to usa

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 15, 2019 at 6:44 pm

You actually reported that adequately.
http://canadianpharmaciesnnm.com/
drugs without prescription
canadian pharmacies without an rx
canadian pharmacy no prescription
top rated canadian pharmacies online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 15, 2019 at 8:53 pm

Nicely put, Thanks a lot.
http://www.canadianpharmacymsn.com/
canadian pharmacy online canada
london drugs canada
pain meds online without doctor prescription
canadian pharmacy online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 15, 2019 at 11:01 pm

With thanks, Plenty of advice!

http://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/
prescription drug cost
canadian pharcharmy
canadadrugs
canadian online pharmacy

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 16, 2019 at 1:08 am

Cheers, A lot of posts.

http://canadianpharmacymim.com/
best canadian mail order pharmacies
canada online pharmacies
buy online prescription drugs
canada drugs

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 16, 2019 at 3:17 am

Many thanks! I value it.
http://talahicc.com/
online pharmacy no prescription
canada pharmacy online
discount pharmaceuticals
canada pharmacy online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 16, 2019 at 5:28 am

Really quite a lot of excellent knowledge.
http://canadianpharmaciescubarx.com/
prescription drug
canadian pharcharmy
canadian pharmacies online prescriptions
canada pharmacy online

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 16, 2019 at 7:37 am

Thanks a lot. Plenty of stuff!

https://nicktambone.com/
canadian pharmacy king
canadian pharmaceuticals online
online discount pharmacy
aarp approved canadian online pharmacies

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 16, 2019 at 9:47 am

Many thanks, A lot of postings!

http://canadianpharmacysilo.com/
canada pharmacy online orders
canadian pharmacy online
discount pharmacy online
online pharmacies of canada

Your comment is awaiting moderation.

April 16, 2019 at 11:58 am


Leave a reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *